British food and culture represents a wonderful diversity, with distinct nations making up the United Kingdom and numerous historical influences from all walks of life. To understand English, Irish and Scottish cuisine and their differences, we’ve taken a deeper look into what makes the food culture of each of these nations unique.
It’s impossible to ignore the Sunday Roast when talking about English food. Roast dinners are the heart of English cuisine, steeped in cultural tradition. The Sunday Roast first emerged in the 15th century during the reign of Henry VII. Meals centred around large cuts of meat were hugely popular and the love of beef among the royal bodyguards afforded them the nickname “Beefeaters”.
The Sunday Roast also has a notable social angle throughout history. It’s a large meal that was typically only eaten by the wealthy but today it’s now a staple for families across England and the perfect way to end the week with friends and family.
English foods often originate from specific regions, as is the case with the Yorkshire Pudding. It was first referred to by Hannah Glasse in a publication of 1747, “The Art of Cookery Made Plain and Simple”. It was a deviation from the widely enjoyed batter pudding and was renowned for being light and fluffy in texture.
It wouldn’t be right to talk about British food without mentioning the wide array of culinary influences. The desire of the British Empire to establish trade routes across the world allowed for foreign foods to be imported into England. With strong influence established by the British in India in the 18th Century through the East India company, curries soon became a staple back home being served in England as early as 1733.
However, it wasn’t until after World War II that curry really cemented its place in British food culture. London curry houses were cheap to undercut their competitors and stayed open until after 11PM to entice customers coming from the pub, it soon became a tradition to enjoy a hot, late night curry.
These days it’s hard to look past fish and chips as England’s most popular dish. You’re never far from a local chippy and as an island with swathes of coastland, fresh fish is easy to come by.
Contrary to popular culture, the history of Irish food extends far beyond the humble potato. Although the staple potato crop was important in shaping Irish culture, meat, especially pork, was a hugely popular foodstuff throughout the history of the island. Similarly, as is evident in the case of English cuisine, mealtimes in Ireland are historically a social time for family and friends to come together, and that remains the case today.
The potato came to Ireland in the second half of the 16th century. It’s long-standing prevalence in Irish food culture owes itself, at least partially, to the perfect growing conditions in Ireland. With damp soil and a cool climate, the potato soon became the staple crop. Ireland’s reliance on the potato is no more evident than in the impact of the potato famine which lasted between 1845 and 1852. The disease that wiped out nearly half of all potato crops led to the deaths of nearly 1,000,000 people.
Dublin Coddle is a hugely popular dish in Ireland, utilising cuts of the most popular Irish meat, pork. Coddle is thought to have emerged in the 1700s, and contains bacon, sausage and potato as a slow cooked winter warmer. It is said to have been particularly popular among Irish wives who could leave it on the hob for hours while their husbands were drinking at the pub.
Evidently, the food types are a little different to those historically enjoyed in England based on growing conditions and the popularity of different meats. However, we can see similarities in the food culture of these two nations when they eat particular foods. In the same way the Sunday Roast has become a social occasion, the Irish have also historically made a point of enjoying main meals together with friends and family.
In Ireland, where tradition remains so prevalent, Irish stew remains the most popular dish even today. When in Ireland you can’t beat a hearty stew whatever the occasion.
There are a variety of dishes which today are closely associated with Scotland, including haggis, beef and porridge. The origins of some of these dishes are easier to trace than others, Aberdeen Angus beef has been traced back to the Vikings whereas the origins of haggis are less clear.
Starting the day with porridge was a common occurrence in Scotland from the 16th century onwards as the influence of French cuisine became apparent. A marriage between Marie de Guise and James V sparked this change bringing oats from Europe. Even as French influence dwindled, oats in the form of porridge remained a common meal for the poor. It was cheap and could be prepared in large quantities very easily.
Aberdeen Angus beef, which today exists as one of the most popular foods in Scotland, can be traced back even further, all the way to the Vikings in the 800s. The Vikings brought over this particular breed of cattle which has remained a firm favourite. The Scandinavian influence also impacted methods of preparation. The smoking of meat was a foreign practice which was quickly adopted by the Scottish locals.
Although it is perhaps the food most synonymous with Scotland, the origins of haggis are dubious at best. Haggis is made up of “liver, heart, and lungs of a sheep (or other animal), minced and mixed with beef or mutton suet and oatmeal and seasoned with onion, cayenne pepper, and other spices. The mixture is packed into a sheep’s stomach and boiled”. Some believe the origins of haggis is also Scandinavian from the journeys of the Vikings, whereas others believe it began with the journeys of cattle drovers who would take haggis with them as they went to market.
Just like the rest of Britain, the Scots love seafood. These days Cullen Sink remains one of the most popular dishes on any menu, the locals love the creamy fish soup all year round.
Despite being made up of distinct nations, British food certainly exhibits a number of similarities. Beef became very popular in England and Scotland and culturally meals were and still are enjoyed as social occasions. However, the typical dishes of each country show a number of differences as a result of the differing historical influences which has created a unique food culture in Britain.